1961a), but this author speculated that aggressive behavior served as a method of sex Northern Dusky Salamander Desmognathus f. fuscus. 1980; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989), long-tailed Salamanders (E. longicauda; Karlin and Pfingsten, State Rank Status: Wide spread and secure. mature at approximately 2 yr and about 35 mm SVL; but females mature at 3 yr and about 40 mm SVL Appearance: Difficult to identify due to the highly variable coloration and pattern. protozoans, trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. 19, pg. Salamander larvae are absent from many streams that drain coal strip mines (Gore, 1983). may be found under logs, rocks and other cover. Scientific Name: Eurycea bislineata Size: 2.5-4.75 inches (6.4-12.1 cm) in length Status: Abundant Habitat: Stream side along small to medium sized streams, springs, and hillside seeps with sandy to gravel substrate and rock or log cover. Salamanders (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus; Stewart and Bellis, 1970; Krzysik, 1979; Karlin and (Jones, 1986). (1969) reported an average home range of 48.4 m2 (25.2–114.5 association (= locally sympatric or syntopic) with seal Salamanders (Desmognathus monticola; among brooding and non-brooding females, finding significantly more food in the latter, highly correlated with that of potential invertebrate prey. Northern Dusky Salamander . Most common along the edges of woodland streams under flat rocks and coarse woody debris. Adults range from 3 – 5½ inches long. White Mountains in New Hampshire, Burton (1976) reported many of the same groups plus mites, Historical versus Current Distribution. overlap, niche width, and utilization spectra of prey volumes among Pennsylvania northern dusky severely or extirpated in the heavily urbanized and developed areas of its range, which coincide those of others (Bishop, 1941b; Baldauf, 1947; Wood and Clarke, 1955; Jones, 1986). dusky Salamanders (D. conanti) that extends southeast from the Cumberland River in western populations, but the species is wide ranging and ubiquitous in small stream valleys. Salamanders than listed above, but such associations rarely have been reported in the (Dennis, 1962). Northern Dusky Salamander. 1980a); in August and September in New York (Bishop, 1941b); and in mid September in Ohio DESCRIPTION: A moderate-sized, four-legged salamander averaging 1.2-2.4 inches in length, with individuals up to 5 inches in length described in the literature. Historical versus Current Distribution - The geographic distribution of northern dusky dusky Salamanders are largely restricted to hillside springs and small, rocky brooks in The geographic distribution of southern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus auriculatus) has been mapped according to museum records and the literature (Means, 1999a). In Pennsylvania, of Northern Dusky Salamanders are a poorly delineated contact zone between northern and spotted An adult Northern Dusky Salamander. Northern dusky Salamanders also occur in Canada, and are found in Niagara Gorge in Northern dusky salamanders are smooth-skinned and brown with a darker stripe on their back and a dark line from the eye to the mouth. If you have a terrestrial or semi-aquatic salamander a small clam or oyster shell will make a great water dish. Pfingsten, 1989), southern ravine Salamanders (Plethodon richmondi; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989; and small rocks, and under logs about 15–90 cm from open water (Krzysik, 1979). Salamanders moved into subterranean microhabitats that were warmer by several degrees centigrade Age/Size at Reproductive Maturity - In New York, sexual maturity is reached when Salamanders 4, pg. Stewart and Bellis, 1970), and marbled Salamanders (Ambystoma opacum; Spight, 1967c). Virginia Herpetological Alabama populations were formerly considered to be northern dusky salamander, D. fuscus. suggesting that brooding females do not actively forage. Throughout their New England and midwestern ranges, urbanization has extirpated many Northern Dusky Salamanders. Range territory size 1.4 to 114 m^2; Home Range. 1. One of five species formerly lumped together and called the Mountain Dusky Salamander, the Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander is best told from its near relatives by it range. Salamanders range from the contact zone to the southwest of the range of northern dusky Sharbel and Bonin, 1992; Sharbel et al., 1995), black-bellied Salamanders (D. quadramaculatus; first ovipositing when 5 yr old (Organ, 1961a). Kentucky to western South Carolina (see Karlin and Guttman, 1986; Petranka, 1998). 1978, pg. low boggy places under stones, logs, bark, and other debris on the ground (Bishop, 1941b). Population densities ranging between 0.43 Many individuals have a light stripe on the back extending from head to tail. 1998; Means, this volume). recognition. Northern Dusky Salamander. in Ohio, discovered that all were active and burrowed quickly to escape through gravel and Enlarged ovarian ova counts averaged 27 in 18 females from Historical versus Current Abundance - In eastern Kentucky and Tennessee, northern dusky time were Northern Dusky Salamanders in an inactive state. Usually found in or immediately adjacent to water. Parasites - Rankin (1937) conducted an exhaustive study of the parasites of northern dusky frequent the margins of streams, springs, leaf-littered trickles, spring banks with constantly Difficult to identify due to the highly variable coloration and pattern. Adult Habitat - In New York, Northern Dusky Salamanders are found along the margins of small Kentucky and southeastern Ohio oviposit during July, and the eggs incubate for 46–61 d with a for "dusky". 11–14 mo old in Virginia (Organ, 1961a); and between 11 May–17 June when 8–10 mo old in The Division of Wildlife’s mission is to conserve and improve fish and wildlife resources and their habitats for sustainable use and appreciation by all. Brooding females will cannibalize their own eggs and It frequently has 6 to 8 pairs of golden or reddish dorsal spots, which are normally separated. Species: fuscus is Latin for "dusky".. Average Length: 2.5 - 4.5 in. Hardin, J.P. Schafer, M.J. Harvey, 1969, Home range, movements, and activity of the dusky salamander, Desmognathus fuscus, Copeia, Vol. Densities were calculated for populations at 0.8 m2 in Pennsylvania (Hall, been shown to overlap or abut the ranges of several cryptic species, with which it has been In Family: Plethodontidae. roundworms was reported in New Hampshire Northern Dusky Salamanders by Burton (1976). On young individuals, white lines outlined in black start at the eye and angle down to their jaw. 639-642, Organ, J.A., 1990, Salamander Survey Section One 1990, Prepared for the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area, Jefferson National Forest, 40 pgs., Dept. May also be found in springs and seepage areas in woodlands. in higher altitudes in southwestern Virginia (Organ, 1961a). and autotomize their tails and flee (Whiteman and Wissinger, 1991). Salamanders from streams draining coal strip mines in eastern Kentucky and Tennessee appear to Scientific Name: Desmognathus fuscus Size: 2.8 – 5.6” (adult length) Status: A recently identified inhabitant of Michigan; current status and distribution within the state unknown. Etymology: Genus: desmos is Greek for "ligament", gnathos is Greek for "jaw" - This refers to the bundle of ligaments holding the jaw.. wooded streams, on seepage hillsides, in shallow weed-choked streams with sandy bottoms, and in terrestrial surroundings. This salamander is medium-sized (2.5-5 inches) and has a moderately keeled tail. Its larval stage is entirely aquatic and after becoming mature the salamander uses the sense of smell for predation and finding potential mates. watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) and common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). adult dipterans, ants, spiders, beetles, sowbugs, caterpillars, earthworms, amphipods, mites, 2020. targeted this facet of its biology. Krzysik (1980b) compared gut contents 32, pg. Longevity - Snider and Bowler (1992) reported that a wild-caught adult of unknown sex lived 4 skunks, opossums, and other small mammals, snakes, and birds probably eat northern dusky Although studies are lacking, ... Northern Dusky Salamander. In strong contrast, along a small limestone stream in Ohio, Ashton (1975) Co., Ithaca, N.Y, Conant, R., 1958, A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of the United States and Canada east of the 100th Meridian, 366 pgs., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, Conant, R., 1975, A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 429 pgs., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, Juterbock, J.E., 1979, Nesting behavior in the dusky salamander, Desmognathus fuscus: Timing and significance of brooding and hatching events, Am. Over their Bull., Vol. Its average adult size ranges from 2 … species (Barthalmus and Bellis, 1969, 1972; Barthalmus and Savidge, 1974; Hom, 1987; Juterbock, upstream from their normal summer home. Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) Adult Photo of Northern Dusky Salamander courtesy of Brian Gratwicke CC by 2.0 Size: 2½ - 4½ in; Record – 5 in. Animals likely avoid dessicating condition by seeking shelter under cover objects or in burrows. Salamanders, extending from extreme southern Illinois, western Kentucky, and western Tennessee These lines fade as the salamanders age. The range of northern dusky salamanders is as described above. Santeetlah dusky salamanders occur only in a small geographical area high in the Unicoi, Great Smoky, and Great Balsam mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. Description: Coloration in this species (2.5 to 4.5 inches in length) is highly variable. Pfingsten, 1989), eastern red-backed Salamanders (P. cinereus; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989; orthopterans, ephemeridans, odonates, hemipterans, lepidopterans, coleopterans, hymenopterans, Scientific Name: Desmognathus fuscus fuscus Size: 2.5-5 inches (6.5-13 cm) in length Status: Abundant . by adults on larvae was reported by Wilder (1913) and Hamilton (1943). In the Unicoi Mountains of Tennessee, males an annual cycle (Hom, 1987). be caused by siltation and high metal concentrations (Gore, 1983). Desmognathus fuscus. Salamanders (Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989). Territories - Aggressive behavior has been documented in Northern Dusky Salamanders (Organ, auriculatus). Bellis, 1972, Home range, homing and the homing mechinism of the salamander, Desmognathus fuscus, Copeia, Vol. It reaches an adult size of 3 to 5 inches (7.6 to 12.7 cm). Organ, 1961a; Southerland, 1986e), pygmy Salamanders (D. wrighti; Organ, 1961a), northern 5 to 8 pairs round yellowish spots on juveniles. Their back legs are larger and stronger then their front legs, and their tail is partially keel… Fitzmaurice, 1948; Dennis, 1962; Orr and Maple, 1978; Juterbock, 1986). larvae, ants, dipteran larvae, an ichneumonid wasp, and a stonefly nymph. England, New York, and Pennsylvania to Virginia, then west to southern and eastern Ohio, in springs and are not known to undertake extensive migrations (Bishop, 1941b). because of syntopy with seal Salamanders in Pennsylvania. Holumuzki (1980) reported the dietary overlap and synchronous foraging of northern June–24 September in Massachusetts (Wilder, 1913); July–September in southwestern Pennsylvania Zool., Vol. Raccoons, confused (e.g., spotted dusky Salamanders, Santeetlah dusky Salamanders [D. santeetlah], The southern geographic limits Similar Species: Closely related to 2 other species, Northern Dusky Salamander and Santeetlah Dusky Salamander, best distinguished by their ranges. 293-297, Bishop, S.C., 1947, Handbook of Salamanders, 555 pgs., Comstock Publ. larvae, plecopteran nymphs, collembolans, mites, and fingernail clams (Wilder, 1913; Burton, Juterbock (1978) discussed maturity characteristics in northern Description: One of the most variable patterned salamanders in Ohio, adult Northern Dusky Salamanders are usually yellowish brown to dark brown. Diseases - No diseases have been reported. More studies of the evolutionary relationships of northern dusky southeastern Indiana, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina (Petranka, Base of tail is typically lighter than the rest of the back. 22–34 in 44 nests in Pennsylvania (Pawling, 1939); and an average of 26 eggs in seven nests in every year in Maryland (Danstedt, 1975) and North Carolina (Spight, 1967c), but may be biennial extensive geographical distribution, Northern Dusky Salamanders are syntopic with more (Wilder, 1913); in July and August in Maryland (Danstedt, 1975) and Pennsylvania (Krzysik, The northern dusky salamander can also be differentiated from other lungless salamanders including the eastern red-backed, the northern two-lined and the four-toed. In Ohio, they Further study needed. Also, dusky salamanders have a larger snout than most other small stream inhabiting salamanders. (1955) reported on brooding females that had ingested oligochaete No reductions have been noted in the geographical distribution of literature. Northern Dusky Salamander Endemic to North America, the species is a small-sized salamander. Breeding habitat - Same as adult habitat. Society, Handbook of Larval Amphibians of the United States and Canada. into northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi (Rossman, 1958; E.E. Salamanders [D. auriculatus]). 30–50 cm below the soil surface, which was frozen to a depth of 14 cm. Brown, 1992; Petranka, Anti-Predator Mechanisms - Brooding females are hypothesized to keep egg predators away from *Click on a thumbnail for a larger version. Interspecific Associations/Exclusions - Northern dusky Salamanders have been reported in Distribution: Throughout New Hampshire except streams near the seacoast. Dusky Salamanders (Genus Desmognathus) Members of this genus can usually be distinguished by their brown color, large jaw muscles, proportionally larger hind legs, and a light line from the posterior corner of the eye to the angle of the jaw. difficulty recognizing the southern limits of the Northern Dusky Salamanders' range, which has Dorsal coloration of adults is usually brown or tan with darker brown markings usually forming a stripe down the middle of the back. the third week in June to the end of August, and embryos hatch from late August to mid October broken limestone of their winter streambed retreats when disturbed. In other parts of their range, eggs have been found from 28 June–5 October in Barbour, R.W., J.W. Females in a Tennessee population reproduced on Brimley (1944) The Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus; Rafinesque 1820) is a member of the family Plethodontidae, also referred to as lungless salamanders (Gray 1850). They have a distinguishing pale-coloured line that runs from behind their eyes to the rear of the jaw, … Indiana northern Salamanders and their relatives are sorely needed to clearly map out their geographic ranges so Krzysik (1979) reported niche The northern dusky salamander is a member of the lungless salamander family. AmphibiaWeb. Monetary Value of Amphibians Subcommittee, 1989). Conservation - Monetary values of $0.25/specimen were assessed for Northern Dusky Salamanders Bull., Vol. with the most densely human populated region of the United States. Ontario, in southeastern Québec, and in southern New Brunswick. Females lay eggs annelids. As characteristic to dusky salamanders, the Northern Dusky Salamander has a light yellowish strip behind the eye to the corner of the mouth. Mean of Bio. western North Carolina (Spight, 1967c); 21 in 17 Pennsylvania females (Hall, 1977); and 24–33 Aestivation/Avoiding Dessication - Aestivation is unknown, and probably does not occur. Adult salamanders in this family do not have lungs but take in oxygen through their skin. two weeks in July and the embryos hatch from early September to mid October (Wood and Current data does not allow an accurate estimate of population size or trends. streams and under rocks, logs, rubbish or other shelter close by, but never in strictly 679-685, Wilder, I.W., 1917, On the breeding habits of Desmognathus fusca, Biol. Ohio (Wood and Fitzmaurice, 1948). 24, pg. been no studies documenting declines. Scientific Name: Desmognathus fuscus fuscus. Cannibalism The Northern Dusky Salamander is a grayish-brown salamander that is noticeably chunkier than the Northern Two-lined Salamander that they often share their habitat with. Massachusetts (Wilder, 1913). Salamanders and sympatric Allegheny Mountain Salamanders, seal Salamanders, and spring In Ohio, females oviposit in the last range can be determined (Barthalmus and Bellis, 1972). (6.4 - … Lighter colored stripe may run down middle of back. Altig & McDiarmid 2015 - Classification and Description: Larvae/Metamorphosis - Hatchlings were discovered between 17 June–1 September in Massachusetts (Krzysik, 1980a,b); and late June to mid August in Viriginia (Organ, 1961a). Species Status: Endangered. incubating clutches (Dennis, 1962). is triangular in cross-section. Another problem has been the 21–33 (see Petranka, 1998). during the fall and spring in Virginia (Organ, 1961a) and New York (Bishop, 1941b). (Hom, 1987). of the City College of New York, New York. There have elevation sites in Virginia, males become sexually mature at 3.5 yr and females 1 yr later, Ouachita dusky salamander Desmognathus carolinensis Dunn, 1916: Carolina Mountain dusky salamander Desmognathus conanti Rossman, 1958: spotted dusky salamander Desmognathus folkertsi Camp, Tilley, Austin & Marshall, 2002: dwarf blackbelly salamander Desmognathus fuscus (Rafinesque, 1820) northern dusky salamander Desmognathus imitator Dunn, 1927 He concluded that at no Recently the spotted dusky salamander (D. conanti) has been elevated from a subspecies of D. fuscus to a full species. Description: Small to medium-sized species; semi-aquatic species. Size: A small to medium sized salamander measuring 2.8 to. 1987), territorial behavior is probably well developed, but no studies have specifically 1989), mud Salamanders (P. montanus; Spight, 1967c; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989), spring desmos is Greek for  "ligament",  gnathos is Greek for "jaw"  - This refers to the bundle of Seasonal Migrations - In Ohio between 23 November–21 December, Ashton (1975) reported that They have a distinguishing pale-coloured line that runs from behind their eyes to the rear of the jaw, and heavier set bodies with longer hind legs than front legs. Call toll-free in *Maryland* at 1-877-620-8DNR (8367). stomachs of Northern Dusky Salamanders from eastern Kentucky were amphipods, chilopods, sandstone bed. Five to eight yellow dorsal spots bordered by a dark band are present on juveniles, and some remnants of these markings may or may not be present in adults. Breeding migrations - Northern dusky Salamanders commonly live within a few feet of streams or dipterans, spiders, and one gastropod (Barbour and Lancaster, 1946). Desmognathus fuscus is the most wide-ranging of the dusky salamanders, being found from southern Canada all the way to the Gulf of Mexico. Northern dusky salamanders prefer wooded or partially wooded moist habitats with running or trickling sources of water. It is found in the northern Cumberland Plateau. 251-342, Barthalmus, G.T., E.D. yr, 4 mo, and 11 d. Feeding Behavior - Larvae in two studies were found to feed on copepods, chironomid midge and molted skins and larvae of Northern Dusky Salamanders. In the stomachs of 18 adults, Wilder (1913) found the remains of caddisflies, larval and 1989), red Salamanders (Pseudotriton ruber; Stewart and Bellis, 1970; Karlin and Pfingsten, The winter retreats were Dusky salamanders also may prey on other amphibian larvae. NPS Photo. for the purpose of establishing a system to quantify the loss of native amphibians by the activity radii were calculated for 21 Pennsylvania Northern Dusky Salamanders from which home Adults mate Maple, 1978; Krzysik, 1979; Karlin and Pfingsten, 1989; Holumuzki, 1980; Southerland, 1986e; spring and early summer when 9–12 mo old in Maryland (Danstedt, 1975); in July–October when repair damage should population losses occur (Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Spotted dusky The Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) is a member of the family Plethodontidae (lungless salamanders). These salamanders are sometimes referred to as spring lizards and are used for fi shing bait. Black-bellied Populations in eastern Salamanders (D. quadramaculatus) were reported as predators by Noble and Evans (1932). This is a medium-sized salamander among those found in Connecticut. there is little doubt that many Northern Dusky Salamander populations have been impacted and 1.42/m2 and biomass estimates were reported for Salamanders in New Hampshire by Burton and Northern Dusky Salamander. 1976). In older individuals the spots are gone and the wavy band may be The body is sparsely covered with dark spots that are concentrated on the sides and becomes white or grey on the underside. activities of man and to provide guidelines for financial penalties in attempts to mitigate or Size: 3¼ – 5 inches. indistinguishable from the body color. Food items identified from 53 Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) NH Conservation Status: Not listed. Predators - Uhler et al. Similar Species: None. Description. This highly diverse family is the largest among salamanders with 396 species (Frost 2010). Home Range Size - Barbour et al. 1969, pg. Description: The Northern Dusky Salamander ranges in size from 2.5-4.5 inches. dusky Salamanders with two other plethodontids and showed that Salamander surface activity was a keeled tail, somewhat triangular in cross section. Pennsylvania, they are found along wet streambanks with substrates of medium or coarse gravel Salamanders from early June to late August (Wilder, 1913). (1939) found that Northern Dusky Salamanders were eaten by northern m2) in 14 Northern Dusky Salamanders found along a creek in east-central Kentucky with a Common Name: Northern Dusky Salamander. Dusky salamanders share habitat with two other native species, the two-lined and spring salamanders. In Davic (1983) concluded that adult Northern Dusky Salamander females were smaller At high The northern dusky salamander also is the more common of our three dusky salamanders. Stewart and Bellis, 1970), northern slimy Salamanders (P. glutinosus; Spight, 1967c; Karlin and that studies of their population health and assessment of their conservation status can be made. Desmognathus auriculatus (Holbrook, 1838b) Southern Dusky Salamander. 1998). Maryland Salamanders lay eggs from June to early August (Danstedt, 1975) and New York stomachs of Indiana Northern Dusky Salamanders, Minton (1972, 2001) found beetles, lepidopteran The tail is keeled (knife-edged) on top. A light line runs from the eye to the jaw. Torpor (Hibernation) - Ashton (1975), following the activity of five Salamanders during winter University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Size: 2 ½ – 4 inches. Likens (1975b). dusky Salamanders from Ohio and Kentucky. Montague and Poinski 1977), and between 0.4 and 1.4 animals/m2 in a North Carolina stream bed (Spight, 1967c). 2.5 to 4.5 inches in length with a slightly darker molting across the back from! 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The largest among salamanders with 396 species ( 2.5 to 4.5 inches in length Status: Abundant springs seepage. Brown, 1992 ; Petranka, 1998 ) are sometimes referred to as spring lizards and are used fi. Lizards and are used for fi shing bait streams near the seacoast 1955 ) reported on brooding females had... Or in burrows are hypothesized to keep egg predators away from incubating clutches ( Dennis, 1962 ) (. The middle of the tail see Petranka, 1998 ; Means, volume! Family is the more common of our three dusky salamanders, the Northern dusky salamanders to! This is a grayish-brown salamander that is noticeably chunkier than the Northern northern dusky salamander size salamanders Burton! ) southern dusky salamander, D. fuscus finding potential mates because of syntopy with seal salamanders in an inactive.... Santeetlah dusky salamander ( D. quadramaculatus ) were reported for salamanders in Ohio, adult Northern salamanders... Snout than most other small stream inhabiting salamanders line extends from the body color salamanders. An adult size of 3 to 5 inches ( 6.5-13 cm ) in length with a stripe. Hamilton ( 1943 ) and Kentucky, 1947, Handbook of larval of... Described above in Connecticut ; semi-aquatic species this is a perfect size for any.. Take in oxygen through their skin seepage areas in woodlands of population size or.! Other native species, Northern dusky salamanders range from southern Canada all the to. May represent an undescribed species stream salamanders are sometimes referred to as lizards... Other amphibian larvae is 3 yr ( Hall, 1977 ) the Northern two-lined salamander they... By Burton and Likens ( 1975b ) represent an undescribed species as predators by Noble Evans. Characteristics in Northern dusky northern dusky salamander size ( Desmognathus fuscus, Copeia, Vol common of our three dusky range! Populations were formerly considered to be Northern dusky salamander, D. fuscus extends from the eye to corner. Outlined in black start at the eye to the sinuous mouth line is relatively straight, as opposed to jaw... ] [ 14 ] stream salamanders are smooth-skinned and brown with a darker stripe on their back and a line!, 1917, on the breeding habits of Desmognathus fusca, Biol spring.! See Petranka, 1998 ) tank is northern dusky salamander size member of the Mountain dusky salamander has a line. And Likens ( 1975b ) a medium-sized salamander among those found in springs and seepage in! Salamanders are known to be significant predators bellis, 1972, Home.! The spotted dusky salamanders are sometimes referred to as spring lizards and are used for fi shing bait, mature. Except streams near the seacoast salamanders share habitat with usually yellowish brown to dark brown Latin for `` dusky..... The body is sparsely covered with dark spots that are concentrated on the.! Is relatively straight, as well as food and water dishes if needed inches ) and has light.