DOI: 10.4172/2329-6879.S1.022 There are many species of mangroves like Thespesia populnea, Pongamia pinnata, Ceriops tagal, Terminalia catappa, Heritiera littoralis, Barringtonia rademosa, Xylocarpus granatum. Important mangrove sites along India's coast are the Sundarbans in West Bengal, Bhitarkanika in Orissa, Chilka lake in Orissa, the deltas of Godavari and Krishna and Pulicat along the east coast, and Vembanad in Kerala, Kundapur in Karnataka, Honnavar in Karnataka, Malvan in Gujarat and the Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat along the west coast. Organic chemistry of secondary plant metabolism. T V Rajya Lakshmi. and Kokpol, U. Ramamurthi, R., Jayasundaramma, B., Lakshmi Rayjam, C., Prasad, D.V.L.N. Hydrobiologia 195: 119–126. A knowledge of the biological activities and/or chemical constituents of plants is desirable, not only for the discovery of new therapeutic agents, but because such information may be of value in disclosing new sources of already known biologically active compounds. Journal of Medical Microbiology 38: 262–264. Molyneux, F. 1972. Mulholland, D.A. Ganguly, S.N. Article  and Tiwari, K.P. Proanthocyanidins and the lignan connection. (ed), Ecosystems of the World. 1990. Minocha, P.K. Elsevier, 428 pp. : Effects on the Oxidative Metabolism of Crabs. Current Topics in Phytochemistry (Life Science Advances) 14: 69–78. and Sedinger, J.S. Journal of Natural Products 46: 482–496. Coastal protection: The dense root systems of mangrove forests trap sediments flowing down rivers and off the land. Conservation of mangroves• The government of India has announced mangroves as ecologically sensitive regions under the Environmental Protection Act of 1986. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 45: 418–420. Bibliography on mangrove research. Journal of Ecology 82: 437–445. In: Atta-ur-Rahman (ed), Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Vol. Coastal zone resource development and conservation in South East Asia, with special reference to Indonesia. Journal of Natural Products 53: 953–955. Cattle will eat mangrove leaf meal after CaCO 3 has been added to raise the pH. Limonoids from the Fijian medicinal plant Dabi (Xylocarpus). 1991 Antimicrobial properties of tannins. 175–195. India has a rich heritage of knowledge on plant based drugs both for use in preventive and curative medicine. Journal of Science 115: 81–89. Toxicants from mangrove plants: bioassay of crude extract. 160–225. Tetrahedron Letters 47: 8943–8948. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam. Elanchezhiyan, M., Rajarajan, M., Rajendran, P., Subramanian, S. and Thyagarajan, S.P. Journal of Ecological and Environmental Science 10: 1–9. Miles, D.H., Chittawong, V., Lho, D.S., Payne, A.M., De La Cruz, A.A., Gomez, E.D., Weeks, J.A. Bioactive compounds from marine organisms with emphasis on the Indian Ocean: An Indo-United States Symposium, Goa (India), pp. Phytochemistry 31: 4163–4166. Barr, A., Chapman, J., Smith, N. and Beveridge, M. (eds), 1988. Thangam, T.S. This is a strictly moderated site. Traditionally, the mangroves have been exploited for firewood and charcoal. 1992. Local people exploited mangrove plants on traditional basis. Costa, H.H. See, e.g. 1996. and Wijeyaratne, M.J.S. Elsevier Scientific, New York, pp. Kapil, A., Sharma, S. and Wahidulla, S. 1994. Google Scholar. The alkaloids of Bruguiera sexangulaand Bruguiera exaristata(Rhizophoraceae). Rao, K.V. 75–78. Toxic principles of Hippomane mancinella. On the active principles of the spurge family, X. Expertise in using mangroves for medicinal purposes has been acquired over a long period of usage. 1981. and Taylor, D.A.H. Orzechowski, G. 1962. Human use of salt marshes. Krishnamoorthy, P., Maruthanayagam, C. and Subramaniam, P. 1995. Economic Botany 52: 307–375. Traditional uses of the mangrove ecosystems. Kokpol, U., Chittawong, V. and Mills, H.D. Mangroves protect coral reefs from sedimentation, sequester massive amounts of carbon to combat climate change, adapt to rising sea levels, serve as nurseries in a vital food source for marine life while providing critical habitat for endangered species. 1955. Limonoids from Australian members of the Meliaceae. Traditional bush medicines: an Aboriginal pharmacopoeia. bush medicine), as insecticides and piscicides and these practices continue to this day. 1974. Mangroves are essential to maintaining water quality. Say, P.J., Burrows, L.G. Where are mangroves found in India?In Mumbai, mangroves are found in many creeks in Konkan region such as Jaitapur, Malvan etc. FAO 1982. The trunk is swollen at the base when young. Tañgal, Ceriops tagal, YELLOW MANGROVE - Herbal Medicine - An illustrated compilation of Philippine medicinal plants by Dr Godofredo Umali Stuart with botanical information, chemical properties, folkloric uses and medicinal research studies. Survey of mangrove plants from Northern Australia for phytochemical constituents and UV-absorbing compounds. 1991. 1988. Hence they are used to manufacture insecticides and pesticides. 48: 716–720. Gunawardena, N.E. Duke (1972) notes that in Panama it is being studied for its telephone pole potential. 1929. Botanica Marina 34: 537–539. Edible jelly and a kind of salt are made from the ashed leaflets. Bruguiera gymnorhiza is a mangrove tree that grows usually to 7-20m high, but sometimes up to 35m, that belongs to the family Rhizophoraceae.It is found on the seaward side of mangrove swamps, often in the company of Rhizophora.It grows from the Western Pacific across Indian Ocean coasts to Cape Province, South Africa Liu, H.W. Several species of mangrove produce bioactive compounds that may control microbial growth. Boll weevil antifeedants from Arundo donax. Miles, D.H., Tunsuwan, K., Chittawong, V., Hedin, P.A. Tosa, H., Iinuma, M., Tanaka, T., Nozaki, H., Ikeda, S., Tsutsui, K., Yamada, M. and Fujimori, S. 1997. Chittawong, V. 1987. • Discouraging sand dredging and quarrying.• Activities to minimize sedimentation.• Controlling water and land pollution. What are mangroves?Mangroves are nothing but the woody trees that exist and grow in the inter-tidal regions of sheltered shores. Mosquito larvicidal activity of marine plant extracts with synthetic insecticides. South China Printing Co., Hong Kong, 140 pp. Leaves of Thespesia populnea are used to cure stomach related problems.• Leaf juice and roots of Ceriops tagal are used to cure malaria, skin diseases problems, etc. FAO 1985. A survey of some Indian marine plants for antiviral activity. Use of mangroves by traditional fishermen in Madagascar. In some cases the plant, or its sap, is used directly. In other cases the leaves may be heated, or the plant material burned to an ash for application. Uses Timber of the mangrove is used for cabinetry, construction, piling, poles, posts, shipbuilding, and wharves. Part of Springer Nature. Taraxeryl cis-p-hydroxycinnamate, a novel taraxeryl from Rhizophora apiculata. 1981. Premnathan, M., Chandra, K., Bajpai, S.K. 363–367. The search for plant precursors of cortisone. MS Thesis. Juliana López-Angarita, Callum M. Roberts, Alexander Tilley, Julie P. Hawkins, Richard G. Cooke, Mangroves and people: Lessons from a history of use and abuse in four Latin American countries, Forest Ecology and Management 368 (2016) 151-162.; Brian Rotich, Esther Mwangi, Steven Lawry, Where land meets the sea - A global review of the governance and tenure dimensions of … 1977. Exploitation of Mangal. • Nutrient recycling by maintaining mangrove and associated forest species. Kathiresan, K. 1995. Greenhouse Publications Pty. Indian Association for the Advancement of Science. They act as a buffer between land and sea. and Nakanishi, K. 1982. Mangrove plants have been used in folklore medicines and extracts from mangrove species have proven inhibitory activity against human, animal and plant pathogens. and Russell, G.B. Third International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Tromsoe, Norway, 7–12 August 1994, Tromsoe University, Tromsoe (Norway) Publishers, pp 98–99. and Woodhouse, W.W. Jr. 1981. They have so many commercial as well as medicinal uses also. and Joseph, J. Viscose grade rayon pulp from sundari (Heritiera minor). and Khanna, N.M. 1976. 347–35. The economical uses of products from mangrove ecosystems are many and varied. Contraception 14: 175–199. The structure of xylomollin, a secoiridoid hemiacetal acetal. Journal of Natural Products (Lloydia) 54: 286–289. Australian Chemical Processing and Engineering 25:9–12. Studies on the new analytical method ofmangrove tannin and the utilization of mangrove wood and seed. Payne, A.M. 1991. Mangrove Infoline Database contains information about the medicinal uses of mangrove plants with protein/enzyme sequences. Vegetation 74: 113–124. While they have been used as sources of firewood and folk medicine, perhaps they lack the charisma of Spruce or Douglas Fir to European settlers. Analgesic activity of marine plants. The liquid gold is collected from hives of Sundarban forest and apiaries located in other coastal areas across the country, where bees primarily feed and forage from mangrove trees.Mangrove trees absorb a lot of nutrients from the sea and these are transferred to the nectar giving it the medicinal properties. 1984. and Mosadomi, H.A. Philippines. Australian Journal of Chemistry 22: 1271–1275. Kokpol, U., Chavasiri, W., Chittawong, V. and Miles, D.H. 1990a. Several species of mangrove produce bioactive compounds that may control microbial growth. 1977. In: Chapman, V.J. Inhibitory activity of xanthone derivatives isolated from some guttiferaeous plants against DNA topoisomerases I and II. Respondents felt that community members should be involved in promoting and sustaining mangrove conservation efforts. 1984. Biddlestone, A.J., Gray, K.R. In 1996, the Supreme Court of India brought mangroves under the definition of forests, this judgement has helped in notifying some mangrove forests, such as Bhitarkanika in Orissa and Sunderbans in West Bengal, as sanctuaries.• In the light of the 1999 super cyclone in Orissa and the significant role of mangroves coastal protection, this ecosystem was declared as ecological hotspots and they now have the highest degree of legal protection.Methods adopted to conserve mangrovesDifferent methods adopted to conserve mangroves, include following: • Maintaining the flow of tidal currents to ensure healthy growth of mangroves. Traditionally, the mangroves have been exploited for firewood and charcoal. The present review deals with the pharmacological activity of mangrove medicinal plants. Sea Grant Publication. 1995. Champagne, D.E., Koul, O., Isman, M.B., Scudder, G.G.E. 1994. 1988. Heinsohn, R.D. Steam volatiles of coconut bark: chemical investigations and electroantennogram responses of the coconut pest, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus(Coleoptera:Curculionidae). and Kathiresan, K. 1991. Higake, M. 1987. 1993. Mangrove plants have been used in folklore medicines and extracts from mangrove species have proven inhibitory activity against human, animal and plant pathogens. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Alvi, K.A., Crews, P., Aalbersberg, B. and Prasad, R. 1994. Flavonoid in der therapie. Vannucci, M. 1989. If you have any questions or concerns regarding any content published here, feel free to contact us using the Contact link below. The mangroves and us. and Clardy, J. It have various medicinal characteristics. Investigation of anticancer from Acanthus illicifolius. Digital Marketing by SpiderWorks Technologies, Kochi - India. Patil, A.D., Freyer, A.J., Eggleston, D.S., Haltiwanger, R.C., Bean, M.F., Taylor, P.B., Caranfa, M.J., Breen, A.L., Bartus, H.R., Johnson, R.K., Hertzberg, R.P. It is reported that some mangrove plants and extracts are used as incense, perfumes, hair preservatives, condiments and aphrodisiacs. Chou, F.Y., Hostettmann, K., Kubo, I. and Nakanishi, K. 1977. Toxicant from mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis. It is effective in countering oral ailment like Toothache. The stucture of balanitins, potent molluscicides isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca. The present review deals with the pharmacological activity of mangrove medicinal plants. Paeivoeke, A., Adams, M.R. 11 pp. - 199.250.203.247. and Poddar, G. 1988. Gomez, E.D., De La Cruz, A.A., Chavez, V.B., Miles, D.H. and Cajipe, G.J.B. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 36: 4132–4138. Spermicidal potential of saponins isolated from Indian medicinal plants. 105–109. Water. Leaves juice or paste of Thespesia catappa . Kawashima, T., Takahashi, T., Inoue, Y., Kodama, M. and Ito, S. 1971. Making tea from the leaves is quaint, wine’s adventurous, and a whistle fun. and Sircar, S.M. In: Thompson, M.F., Sarojini, R. and Nagabhushanam, R. (eds), Bioactive Substances from the Latex of the Mangrove Plant Excoecaria agallochaL. Planta Medica 60: 187–188. Kokpol, U., Miles, D.H., Payne, A.M. and Chittawong, V. 1990b. New Delhi, 203 pp. Among the coastal lagoons along the west coast of Africa, the villagers produce salt by using a technique of boiling brackish water placed in a clay bowl over a fire made from Avicennia. Elsevier Scientific, New York, pp. Euphorbiaceae: Constitiuents of Excoecaria agallocha. In: Chapman, V.J. 1992. Society of Fisheries Technologists (India), Cochin (India) publishers, pp 25–30. and Towers, G.H.N. Larson, R.A. 1988. Owing to its complex chemistry, the plant may have many new medicinal uses. 1986. Enteromorphaas a monitor of heavy metals in estuaries. Heterocycles 7: 969–977. and Thurairajan, K. 1991. Queen, W.H. “People prefer mangrove honey because of its medicinal … Red Mangrove twigs can be used to clean teeth. Effects of grazing and inundation on pasture quality and seed production in salt marsh. Phytochemistry 10: 3308–3309. 1993. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka 22: 231–238. • Possible ways to stop Eutrophication and soil erosion in mangrove forests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 413 pp. 1974. Socio-economic status of the human communities of selected mangrove areas on the west coast of Sri Lanka, UNESCO publications, New Delhi, 19 pp. Mangrove ecosystems: Occasional Papers No 3. Despite this, “mangroves are medicinal plants… widely used… rich in resources of steroids, triterpenes, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and … Phytochemistry 30: 3875–3883. Phytochemistry 13: 1911–1913. Tomlinson, P.B. ScientificTracks Abstracts: Occup Med Health Aff. Amarasinghe, M.D. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. Environmental Ecology 13: 708–710. Mahato, S.B., Sarkar, S.K. Reddy, T.K.K., Rajasekhar, A., Jayasunderamma, B. and Ramamurti, R. 1991. Mangrove Ecosystems: Occasional Papers No.1, UNESCO, New Delhi, 31 pp. Medicinal uses of mangrovesVery importantly, so many mangrove species have medicinal importance. 7. Common uses of mangroves in “bush”/folk medicines • Analgesic (painkilling): Acanthus ilicifolius , Avicennia marina and E. agallocha spp. Mangrove ecosystem has many potential species that are traditionally used by the coastal communities for their traditional cure for health ailments as evidenced by their extensive uses to treat hepatic disorders, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and skin diseases, etc. Information Retrieval Ltd., London, 479 pp. Plant molluscicides. 35: 411–419. This article deals with the importance, location, medicinal and commercial uses and conservation of mangroves. Padamakumar, R. and Ayyakkannu, K. 1994. 1984. Mangroves also provide invaluable green economy services for humans. and Miyabara, T. 1984. 1993. Mangroves mainly used for firewood, construction of house, furniture, boats and fishing. The inophyllums, novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllumLinn. and Varalakshmi, C. 1991. Be the first to comment... Do not include your name, "with regards" etc in the comment. Toxicity of aqueous extracts to fish. 1977. 1988. PubMed  Journal of Ecology 84: 267–278. The techniques which are used vary from plant to plant, and often between groups of Aborigines. National Academy of Science Letters 181(1–2): 43–46. Walsh, G.E. Mulder, C.P.H., Ruess, R.W. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 32: 598–600. Studies on tea from mangrove leaves. Planta Medica 10: 404–411. Extracts and chemicals from mangroves are used mainly in folkloric medicine (e.g. Pehrsson, O. and Whitton, B.A. A botanical approach to the treatment of waste waters. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Environment Paper No.4, Rome, 59 pp. Their leaves and branches can be used as fodder for cattle.• Leather manufacturing industries require tannins for some process. Tetrahedron 38: 513–519. Nipa palm vinegar in Papua New Guinea. UNESCO Regional Seminar on the Chemistry of Mangrove Plants. Tumour inhibitory plants. Recently, the forests have also been commercially harvested for pulp, wood chip, and charcoal production. Uses of mangrovesCommercial uses of mangroves• Mangroves provide timber and fuelwood. The mangroves provide food and wide variety of traditional products and artefacts for the mangrove dwellers. Gibberellins from mangrove plants. Watson, J.G. Stafford, H.A. South African Journal of Botany 57: 1–5. Rollet, B. Ph.D. dissertation, Mississippi State University, MS, 225 pp. Leaves of Thespesia populnea are used to cure stomach related problems. Some of the species of mangroves and their medicinal importance and uses are as follows: • Leaves of Acanthus ilicifolius, Calophyllum inophyllum and Pongamia pinnata are used to cure rheumatism. And Nakanishi, K. 1976. North Sea-Estuaries Interactions. 1994. A large number of these plants grow wild and Cultivation of the Red mangrove twigs can be used as incense, mangrove medicinal uses, hair preservatives condiments... From strong winds, tidal waves and even tsunamis responses of the spurge family, X Topics Phytochemistry... Felt that community members should be involved in promoting and sustaining mangrove conservation efforts mangrove 's has... The alkaloids of Bruguiera sexangulaand Bruguiera exaristata ( Rhizophoraceae ) Fijian medicinal Dabi... Can reduce gastric ulcers, is used for making tonics, wines and fruit.! 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Pest, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus ( Coleoptera: Curculionidae ) ( Coleoptera: Curculionidae ) from Indian medicinal plants and utilization. Buffer between land and sea xanthone derivatives isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca for.. M.B., Scudder, G.G.E Company Publishers, USA, 185 pp, Rome, 59.. Kind of salt are made from the Bay of Bengal facilitate retrieval of information related to the is. Extracts are used as incense, perfumes, hair preservatives, condiments aphrodisiacs!, de La Cruz, A.A., Gomez, E.D., Miles, D.H.,,...